situated on a narrow peninsula at Turkey’s
northernmost point, Sinop is like a Black Sea
island with its good-natured people and streets
where time passes slowly.
Development of the Pontic Greek Dialect
Will Pontic Greek continue to be spoken? Bortone
(2009) believes Pontic Greek spoken in the
Pontos in Asia Minor today will probably
disappear. The challenge is to keep the Pontic
Greek dialect alive. The more recent work of
researchers like Emeritus Professor Peter
Mackridge, Assistant Professor Pietro Bortone,
Dr Theofanis Malkidis, Ömer Asan, Dr Anthi
Revithiadou and Dr Vassilios Spyropoulos have
increased our knowledge of the dialect.
Time For to Discover the Black Sea Highlands
Discover the Black Sea
highlands in September when time is suddenly
rent by a blanket of fog or the cry of a
vulture, and make the acquaintance of nature in
its most beautiful aspect.
Formation of the First Greek Settlements in the
According to Liddell and Scott’s An Intermediate
Greek-English Lexicon, the word Pontos stands
for the sea, especially the open sea. In time,
the word Pontos became associated with the
north-eastern portion of Asia Minor that borders
the Black Sea (see Map 1).1 The Greeks first
called the Black Sea, Aξεινος πóντος
(inhospitable, unfriendly pontos), but later it
was called Εϋξεινος πóντος (hospitable pontos)
when they became aware of its wealth in the
lands around it ...
Crypto-Christians of the Trabzon Region
The crypto-Christians (also called cryphi,
klosti, Stavriotes, Kromledes) were Christian
Greeks who due to the Muslim persecution against
Christians publicly declared themselves Muslims.
However, in secret, they upheld their Greek
language, customs and Christian religious
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Mosques of Trabzon
It is in the High Street(Uzun Sokak). Though
the exact date of foundation is not clear, it is
estimated that Kasım Ağa had it built in the 18,h
century. In 1883, some repairs were carried out.
While the forefront was of hewn stones, the other
stones were of rough stones and the wooden roof is
covered with bricks.
The main transition from
the external area for prayers to the main building
has hewn stones as iveil as gilts.
niches of the mosque which are illuminated from
forefronts are in a baroque style. The minaret in
the west is of stone and has a single pinnacle
The mosque is located opposite to Küçük
Ayvasıl Chapel, in Maraş Avenue. The Mufti of the
period, Ismail Efendi had made it built in 1953,
but in 1970 today’s mosque was built. The roof
made of hewn stones was built upon four walls and
then surmounted by a dome. Three little domes are
affiliated to the main dome.
The altar niche
and the pulpit are of marble and the walls are
decorated with motives and ornaments. The mosque
has a fountain in the east and two tombs in the
west. They belong to Hacı Ismail Efendi and his
son, who are the founders of the former mosque.
HIZIR BEY MOSQUE
The mosque ıvas built in 1789, in memory
of Hızır Bey, who used to be a mayor. The entrance
to the mosque is from the door opening to the
fountain courtyard in the west. The walls are of
thick hewn stones, and a wooden roof is covered
with bricks. A two storey exterior area for
prayers were extended later.
In the minaret,
there are motives and ornamentations. The altar
niche is in a baroque style and there are stone
columns on both sides. The minaret is of stone and
has a single pinnacle.
HACI KASIM MOSQUE
The mosque located in Had Kasim was built
by Yavuz Sultan Selim’s accountant, Had Kasim,
during the governorship of Yavuz Sultan Selim. The
main place consists of a large dome set up on four
walls. The dome is covered with lead and brick.
The walls are of stone and the windows on the four
sides illuminate the place. The altar niche and
the pulpit are plain, the minaret made of stone
has a single pinnacle.
KUDRETTIN (ST.PHILIP) MOSQUE
Located in Esentepe, it ivas originally
built as a church in 1341-1342, used as a
cathedral for a certain period and later converted
into a mosque in 1665. It underwent a considerable
restoration during 1968-1969.
In the inside of
the structure that has an interesting plan, the
naves end in circles and with a polygonal apses on
the outside. The dome being Caucasian in style,
its rim being dodecagon. The altar niche and
pulpit is plain and the minaret in the north is
made of stone and has a single balcony.
HUSNU KÖKTUĞ (ST.ELEFTERIOS) MOSQUE
Located in Çömlekçi, it was built as a
church before the conquest in the 15th century.
Soon after the conquest, it was no longer used in
1923 and was converted into a mosque by Husnu
Koktug Pasha in 1953.
A three naved Byzantine
basilica and covered with vault, it stands on
elephant feet. During its use as a church, the
north and west doors were used. But today, only
the one on the north is used. Its altar niche and
pulpit are plain, its minaret concrete and it has
two balconies. It has two entrances: the north and
MOLLA SIYAH-NAKIP (ST.ANDREA)MOSQUE
Located in Pazarkapi, it ivas built as a
church during 10,h-l 1th centuries. After the
conquest of Trabzon, it was named Nakip Mosque.
Its northern entrance built by Turks, the
structure is today known as Molla Siyah Mosque. It
went through a restoration in 1975, the vault
covered with concrete.
The building has three
naves and there are two columns, the apses part of
which is made of ancient blocks, separating the
ERDOGDU BEY MOSQUE
Built in 1577 by Erdogdu Bey, one of the
governors of Trabzon, the mosque is located in
Erdogdu. The mosque, made of stone, was built on a
four-walled-roof covered with bricks. To its north
is fountain courtyard and an external prayer place
to the east. The walls of the courtyard are made
of stone and still preserve its originality
MUSA PASHA MOSQUE
Musa Pasha had the mosque, located in
Middle Square(Ortahisar), Musa Pasha Street, built
The roof, composed of a single and a
big dome, is based on side roads ivhich are of
stones. Till now, various repairs have been
carried out. The mosque, whose entrance is from
the north, has three doors to the east and two
windows to the south. The stones in the eaves are
decorated. The altar niche and the pulpit are
plain. The minaret has a single pinnacle and
stalactites of stone.
HAMZA PASHA MOSQUE
Located in Gulbahar Hatun quarter, just at
the opposite of police station, the mosque was
built in 1748. There is a fountain to the north of
the rectangular building. The walls are of stones
and a wooden roof is covered with bricks.
main entrance has a stone arch and the window
ceilings are of hewn stones. The altar niche and
the pulpit are plain. The minaret in the mosque
has a single pinnacle.
ÇARŞI (BAZAAR) MOSQUE
Hazinedarzade Osman Pasha, a former
governor of Trabzon, had this mosque built in
1839. The mosque, which has stoneivork of a high
quality, is at the same time, the biggest mosque
of the city.
The mosque consists of an external
area for prayers and the interior part as well.
There are a dome resting on six columns and three
situated in the east and the west.
The external area for prayers is * M also
surmounted by three small M domes. The inscription
is on the interior circular-arched door whose *
entrance is reached after one passes through the
external area. The interior part also has two
doors opening to east and west. The 4 door that
opens to the left is '3 j ornamented and has the
The pidpits ivhich are of
marble are completely ornamented in a baroque
style. There is an inscription in the front, and
two rosettes on the cornerstones.
ORTAHISAR FATIH MOSQUE (PANAGIA KHRYSOKEPHALOS
Located on Ortahisar, it is known to be
the most important religious structure of the
Byzantine period. It is also the structure that
most reflects the decorative arts of the Ottoman
Empire. The building, thought to be a temple in
the Roman times, was built as a church in the 10th
century and additions and restorations were made
in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. It was used
as a metropolitan church during the Komnenos
Kingship, during which rituals were made for
kings. Beneath the floor is mosaic engravement and
frescoes inside the walls.
This mosque was
probably the first to be converted from church and
the first Friday congregational prayer was
probably performed here. The wooden altar and
stone pulpit added in this period are some of the
best examples of the Ottoman art. The building
underwent several restorations in the years of
1468, 1877 and 1971.. And it took current shape in
the 12th century. The apse of the three nave
building is round inside, polygonal outside. The
north entrance was moved to the north in the
Ottoman period. The structure is a great example
of calligraphy with its architecture, inner wooden
ornamentations and also inscriptions on the
YENICUMA (ST.EUGENIOS) MOSQUE
Located in Yenicuma, this mosque is
dedicated to St.Eugenios, once thought to be the
guarding saint of Trabzon.
The first structure
is said to be a basilica that dates back to the
13rh century. Having no narthex, the structure has
three apses and naves. The central dome is fixed
on two cruciform legs in the east and a doric
column in the west. On the apses are depictions of
pigeons and eagles embossed.
After the conquest
of Trabzon, it was converted into a mosque. A
northern entrance and a minaret was built together
with another entrance through the great entrance.
The stone altar niche is baroque in style and the
wooden pulpit is plain.
On the floor are mosaic
ornaments and frescoes inside the walls. In the
inner walls are invaluable ornamentations.
AH1EVREN DEDE MOSQUE AND TOMB
Viewing the city from Boztepe, the mosque
and the tomb were built in 1890. Laid on a square
plan, it consists of one dome and an entrance
corridor in the northwest. It has two windows in
the west and southeast and sixteen on its dome.
There is a tomb adjacent to the northeastern part
of the mosque and a corridor leading to the mosque
in the west of the tomb. The side walls and arches
show traces of an original structure, while the
altar niche, pulpit and pew were built later.
There are four graves in this tomb, one of which
is said to belong to Ahi Evren. Of the three, on
the one in the middle is written Had Hakki Baba’s
name and his death date “1883” To the south of the
mosque is a great historical cemetery. The mosque
is open to use and the tomb is open to visit.
GÜLBAHAR HATUN MOSQUE
The mosque ıvas bııilt in 1514 in the
memory of Giilhahar Hatun, the mother of Yavuz
Sultan Selim. The building, which was known as
Büyük İmaret or Hatuniye Mosque was situated in
the middle of a complex of buildings of which only
the mosque and the tomb have survived. The Mosque
is categorized in the Zaviye (i.e. with hermit
cells) group, an architectural style encountered
in the early Ottoman period.
consists of an external area for prayers, a cell
surmounted by a big dome and the interior part
surmounted by a big dome. The dome surmounting the
external area was built upon the arches and marble
columns whose helmets are in a diamond shape.
The pulpit and the alter niches are of marble. The
borders of the alter niches are plain at the sides
and adorned with motifs at the top. The pentagonal
niche terminates in the slactitevault.
cup is a damaged rosette.The classical
ornamentation of the mosque has been spoilt by
later modifications. Today’s ornamentation has
been carried out in the subsequent years. From the
inscription of the door it is clear that the
mosque underwent repairs in 1885.
in the courtyard was once surmounted by a dome;
however, with the recent repairs a conical spair