Encyclopedic Dictionary of Black Sea (KaradenizAnsiklopedik Sözlük) by Özhan Öztürk

A new work has been just added to the list of the works on Turkey that have been made in recent years including the genres of folklore, travel, monography and encyclopedia. “Encyclopedic Dictionary of Black Sea” by Özhan Öztürk is also a first of its field. Etymological explanations are also given for the articles in the encyclopedic dictionary that is a product of work with both original resources and rather rich bibliographies. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Blacksea, a direct source for many answers on Black Sea region of Anatolia, looks like a work of a great labor. The dictionary is being published by Heyamola Publications and printed only in limited numbers. A scientific resource for those who are interested in the history, culture and folklore of Black Sea. The author of the encyclopedia Özhan Öztürk evaluates his work of 1260 pages such as:
“I don’t know the reason but no archeological excavations have been made in the Pontic coast of Anatolia. Querying why there are no excavations have been made in such a region that have a dense settlement as mentioned in Anabasis of Xenophon (B.C 401) is not the subject of this book. However, undoubtedly it will not be an optimistic guess to hope to find no less than at the excavations in Crimea and  Colchis. Another interesting and discuss-worthy issue is that why a realist analysis of the original names of the villages and quarters that are used by the people even after the changes of the names in Republic era have not been made in these works on region’s culture and history including a great degree of content in Turkish. Having been limited with cities Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Rize and Artvin, I worked on all the original words, idioms and toponyms used in the spoken Turkish dialects by the people, independent from their native language, by comparing with surrounding cities such as Samsun, Erzurum and Gümüşhane, Anatolia, even surrounding countries and the their languages. I hope that the comparison of the original toponyms with Anatolia, Greece/Hellas, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and other Turkic States would be useful for those who are interested in regional history and influential for researchers.
While some village names in region do match with the villages in Crete and Epirus, no equivalents are found in Anatolia and North Hellas, encounter of some village names similar with those in the North Abkhazia, the motherland of Laz, existence of the traces of Pelasgi and Thracians, the prior people of the Anatolia and Hellas before the Indo-Europeans requires the re-thinking not only of the Anatolian and region history but also the history of a wide area from Caucasus to Balkans.

Title: ENCYCLOPEDIC DICTIONARY OF BLACKSEA ISBN 9756121009 (Turkish: Karadeniz Ansiklopedik Sözlük)

Author: Özhan Öztürk
Publisher: Heyamola Publishing House,  Istanbul
For Order: www.attistanbul.com , heyamola@attistanbul.com
Online puchase: 
Works of Özhan Özztürk at Amazon

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Crete in Trabzon Thrace in Artvin (An interview about the book with writer)

 The Review Express, June 2005 Issue
Interview: Uğur Biryol for Express magazine August 2005
Özhan Öztürk, 2005

Özhan Öztürk, 2005

1- How did you mind to write the “Encyclopedic Dictionary of Black Sea” which is seen as a comprehensive work?

 In 1998, I noticed that the terminology works on the field of Black Sea culture and the folkloric elements’ those constitute this culture were in a neglect both in academic writing and literature. They were about to be forgotten, those names of the original plants and animals, outdated kitchen and agriculture artifacts, the food that is cooked no more today, the wild plants of the local flora that were destroyed by the tea and hazelnuts production, extinct migrating birds, fishing, transhumance, animal husbandry which lost his authenticity by the time, and various handicrafts such as copper-working and spoon-making and all the folkloric knowledge related to these counted values. As it is known, since many original village names those had been renamed not for a mere coincidence and lasted since the ancient ages were changed after the Republic era with makeup Turkish names, naturally a realist record and analysis for these names had not been performed and thus a deep knowledge which is related not only with the history of region but also a wide area from Balkan peninsula to Caucasus was out of the use of the science of history. It is interesting that the ancient site Zile/Zela where Julius Caeasar quoted his famous phrase “veni, vidi, vici”, is called with the same name today and it stands for “wine” in the language of Thracian people which was resident in Anatolia and the origin of Thrace region before the Greeks and it is a name of the district in Artvin-Yusufeli which will be covered by the water because of the dam in a year. This information is so meaningful for the ancient Anatolian history and has a priceless value for it reflects the urgency and importance of this work. There are thousands of new details such as the word Trabzon which stands for “Slave Market” in Greek and Erzurum that had been deciphered as Arz-ı Rum and entered into Encyclopedia AnaBritannica which is in fact for Erzin-i Rum, and the matches of the central village names of Trabzon-Rize in Crete and Mora peninsula, that I give with the coordinates in my book.
 2- It must be painful to find the words in this dictionary. Because there are thousands of words of various regions in this dictionary. And the etymological origin of these words are essential for this work. So, you ever had an assistance of a linguist while working on such a dictionary?
 Local terms those are spoken in Turkish dialects between Ordu and Artvin were in the Word Collection Reviews of the Turkish Language Association as well as city almanacs and many books that had been written on the culture and folklore of the region before. I found the web site www.karalahana.com and collected more than those with the help of thousands of site members, and I, through the members, had the possibility to reach the regions that I could not and the knowledge of their grandmothers and grandfathers. Sure it was not enough to only collect words and scan for resources, but it was also vital to find the etymological origins of the names of the villages, quarters, mountains, plateaus and rivers. In this period, I learned Ancient Greek and I developed my Laz that I scarcely spoke because of my mother, I brought many books on Linguistics and especially etymology from various universities abroad, I researched the works those on Anatolian Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Old Turkish, Georgian and Mingerilian and I met their authors and discussed face-to-face. The reader can, maybe for first time, find the hidden treasures of the language and folklore of such, as Turkmen accent that created their own cultural synthesis at the southeast of Trabzon, Laz spoken along the east shore of Rize, Middle Ages Greek spoken at the inner parts of Trabzon and a local variation of Armenian which is called Georgian and Hemşin Language and spoken at the inner highlands of Artvin. Therefore, a work which I even could not imagine at the beginning is formed with interesting knowledge such as over forty folk songs in Hemşin language which has hardly a written record, from flower and animal names to the nasty swears in Greek spoken in Trabzon, the living traces of the worshipping to the trees, sun and moon ,those inherited from paganism before the monotheist religions, in the language and folklore, and search of these traces in ancient Greek texts and historical resources and the reasons why a majority of Christians of the region lived in a Muslim character until 19th century.
 3- What kind of difficulties you had while working on this work? Did you ever say “It is enough, I gave up!”?
 The most important things as a difficulty are economical issues. I gave my seven years , the most productive years of my life, for a work which will not make a good income. I did not discontinue working though I decided to give up there three or four times in each year. However, I did not gave up because I had no inner peace. My grandfather was a mariner from Rize and his brothers, uncles, father and all known ancestors were so. Maybe folkloric knowledge of thousands of years was remained away because of our generation which did not choose the ancestors’ profession even it was unknowingly. Besides recording the stories of the people who is not “here” “now” and the life to be extinct, this is a work which provides Anatolian and Turkish historians with new discussion points for I explained those in an anticipated way. Therefore, I believe that Black Sea life style and folklore, and even ethnic structure in some areas did not changed at all since the ancient ages.
 4- Unfortunately such works does not get attention in Turkey. How do you think to promote your book?
 As Nietzche says in Ecce Homo “The ears to hear me have not been born yet”. I think that my work shall be valued by time for our next generations, so people of today is not my initial target of this work.
 5- Works on Black Sea may cause reactions by some people. For instance, calling people from Trabzon with a Greek origin and calling people of Hemşin as Armenians can raise Cain among some people. What do you think then?
 All generalizations and exceptions as well as hypothesises in science come with its antithesis. I did not prepare my book to prove anything or to support any political or ideological thesis except the reasons that I mentioned above.
6- Tens of nations that have different styles of life are living in Black Sea Region. However, everyone calls people of Black Sea as Laz. This work is so important for it points out the existence of the people who speaks different languages. Is that one of the aim of this book to point out this?
 I have already explained with details why the word Laz was adopted by the people of whole region in the article Laz with 13 pages with the help of historical texts. The basic source of this problem is that all local people from the tribes that lived in Black Sea region and West Georgia shore and were mentioned as the  Colchis, Tzan, Dzan in the Greek sources as Anabasis (BC 401) described themselves under the Laz common name since the Roman Empire period. That is the reason why Procopius had to need to explain this confusion about defitions in AD 6. century. Today, the people who lives at the east of district Pazar of the city Rize is one of these tribes preserved its existence and language… In addition to this, the people of Hemşin living at the same area and Turkmens never describe themselves as Laz but they are known as Laz.
 7- How many years you gave for this work? As you know a Japanese linguist who made researches on Laz language had been deported before with a charge of “Seperatism” even a person from this region as İsmail Avcı Bucaklişi used to accompany him. Why do such researches are being obstructed? What is your opinion?
 I have been working since 1998 but the phase of converting it to a dictionary format and determination of the articles were in 2001. I know the Turkey adventure of the mentioned Japanese linguist. I have read his associate grammar book on Laz language with Bucaklişi but the subject of my book is not directly Laz language, Greek language, Hemşin language or Georgian. I took into consideration only the local words that are used in Turkish in the determination of the articles. To compile other languages to be spoken in the region is more painful and that has to be the subject of a different work. However, I, of course, did not neglect to make these languages as articles in my dictionary, to analyze the village names in these languages and to add the local elements in these languages without a Turkish equivalent into the dictionary.
 8-Is there further book projects of you?

 I am working on a similar encyclopedic work under the name “Folklore, Religion and Mythology”. I suppose that it will be ready to be published in 2006.


Worship of trees;
Turkish (Trebizond and Rize region) Folklore
Swinging of tree branches and leaves means worship.ıt is believed that oak trees do not worship God because their leaves less swing.
 Sakir Sevket says that when Akcaabat society believe in an idol and worship a tree called platana the city was called with this name.Although the platana (Platanus Orientalis in Latin) was a plane tree he confused this tree with poplar.
 The words of Lermioglu “today peasants love trees as their children.There were several events which people kill someone for a tree” and a story from 19th century show us that this love comes from very old days. A hunter from Mersin village cut a tree called kragen which was idol of Akcaabat society (Since 1940).Then the peasants called the pollice and said that the hunter cut the Evliya (< Turkish and Arabic Evliya “Saint”).This event can only be explained with the “paganist” beliefs comes from “Kafkasya”. At first the police undersood that the hunter killed a man called Evliya (Saint) but later they saw that the “saint” was a tree so they let the hunter go.It was an example of Kolhis culture that can be seen today which was mixed with Islam in Trabzon under the name of saint and common before one God religions that people used to believe in nature.
 It is posible to see same things in Hemsin region of Rize “the branches are praying three days before and during bairam,so we do not cut live branche during bairam, the branches are praying”.
Ahi Evren Dede The man was believed to be the Muslim preacher who came Trabzon in Trabzon Empire times and extended Islam here. His grave in Boztepe was sacred and visited by people.
His real name is Sheyh  Nasreddin Ebul’ Ha-kayik, Mahmud Bin Ahmed El – Hoyi and he was born in Hoy in Iran in dc.1169.He grew up in Azerbaijan and then came Kayseri and established Ahi community. He was killed by Mongols in Kırsehir in 1st April of 1261. The grave’s owner in Boztepe could be someone else for example a clan leader or a Greek metropolitan who accepted Islam later.
According to Sakir Sevket ,in 1863 the Muslim preacher Seyh Haci Hakkı Efendi claimed that he was charged by God and had a place built near Ahi evren Dede’s grave.When he died in 1890 he was buried near this place and the government built a tomb and mosque on his grave.
 1.n. oppressive,heartless;ahriyan DC.33 ;ahriyan “strange,bad,ugly(his behaviour was too bad…) (her dress is too ugly)BY 259(Trabzon)
2.n. name of people from Tonya and Besikdüzü which was given by Salpazarı Cepnis ;ahrayn (Salpazarı) ;ahiryan “not Cepni” AKC 161; ahrayan (Salpazarı Akciris) ; axriyan “the name of native redheads” AC 305(Vakfıkebir)
Name of people from Tonya and Beshikdüzü (Trabzon) which was given by Salpazarı Turkomans. It means native (Anatolian, Greek origin) or not Turkoman. It’s mean also“oppressive, heartless” in adjectival use.
The ‘ahriyan’name of Muslims (Pomak) who live in the Balkans and speak Bulgarian (Menage,1969), given by Turkmens because they are not from Turk generation.There is a place called Ahriyan in Iskece city in West Trakya.
In Ottoman language ahriyan means “valuable,beautiful clothe” OSM 18
 It derives from Persian word Ahura Mazda. It creates twin soul and one of this soul, Angra Mainyu chooses badness counsciousliy so he creates death. The main theme is the war between Angra Mainyu and Ahura Mazda in Zoroastran teology which is an antique Iran religion .In Sasanies times the common language was mid term Persian (Pahlavi) and Angra Mainyu was called ahriman in this language. At least after a thousand-year oral tradition ,in twenty one-part Avesta which was probably written in BC. 6 , ‘angra’ means enemy, sin, bad and ‘mainyu’( mainyêush, mainyô, mainyush, mainyû) means soul,invisibility,spiritual. Although it is used common ahriman forms in Anatolia,there appear to be uncommon ahriman forms in Salpazarı which has  Alevilik (partisan of the caliph Ali) features.
alaturbi n. a sea festival in West of Trebizond. It is celebrated on 20 May (in Hegirian calendar 7th May) from Samsun to Rize Pazar along the Pontic coast by Native peoples, called Litropi (< Greek Litro “Bath” + Poli “city”) in Mahno in Surmene, and celebrated in Akcaabat and Besikdüzü on 29th June -6th July with the participation of Cephni Turkomans.
People who have pain, ache or epilepsy swim on that day to recover. People who knows swimming swim in the sea and the others carry water from the sea and have a bath.At the same time it is very useful to travel at least three at most seven river mouths with a boat. Because women and the people from mountains do not know swimming there are too much suffocation events”
anata kolefisi n. Salt, flour and oil is collected from seven different houses, water is brought from seven different rivers , last of all seven piece of wood is collected from seven different hedges.It is cooked a very salty bun.Young girls who eat this bun see their possible husbands in their dreams at that night.(Rize,Trabzon,Hopa); anata holoti “O bizde yok/ naiyelerde vardu[r]/ anata ḳoloti derler oğa/ Urumċa/ Rumċadur onun ismi/ oni giderler kişun dağda ḫamur yoğururler pişirurler oni karlarda/ oni gelur dağitirler benum rahmetli oy annem Gόneşeraliydi/ Gider gόtururdi bizi ordan yerduk oni başi-mizun altina korduk bilema/ alaċak oldu-ğunu ruyada görürdu/ bizden daha ḉok na-hiyeliler, kopribaşililar, Oflilar ederdi” (Sür-mene Maċuka) İK 22 Bk. Kolot
 Anċomah A mythological place which was firstly mentioned by Hasan Umur (in 1940’s) is approximately fifty meters far away from the sea and near Of town in Trabzon. It is a place on the lower slopes of a mountain.According to the story Ancomah had been a very rich city before the Bosporus appeared.With the existance of the Bosporus the relationship between the city and the sea disappeared and the city was destroyed.
According to the people (Their language Of dialect of Pontic Greek. It’s Mediaval dialect still spoken by Muslims in Trebizond with some features of Antique Greek) who live in Baltaci River, the city was near the sea so the iron rings which were used to tie the ships can be seen,but no one has seen them yet.
One of Umur’s friends who lives in Divran ,the closest town to Ancomach, tallks about extraordinary features of the city. “we hear from our grands that there was a town. People would use special iron pipes to pour needed milk from the plateaus”.
Today there is a small lake about 30 metres wide and the people believe that there is a fortune under the water.When the city bacame far away from the sea the king understood that the city has no value anymore. He had have a big hole digged near the river and placed his valuable goods then poured wax on it. After the wax became rigid he creates a small lake by pouring water using a secret water way here. Antzomakh derives from antique Greek (αντίμαχος) “a place to meet in wartime ” (Homer, Iliad 4.123, 132, 138, II. 12.188)
 There’s a Greek village in Kos (Turkish Istankoy) island in Aegean Sea called Αντιμάχεια [Lat (DMS) 36° 48′ 39N Long (DMS) 27° 5′ 59E) probably same word origin and perhaps origin of the saga. It’s similiar sembols about vanishing a civilization story Atlantis of Platon (Critia p. 108, 113). It’s not suprising if mythological toponim of Atlantis’s and Antzimah are the same. InTrebizond region oldest Greek dialect still and continously spoken from 7. century BC and most of the village’s names same as antique Peloponnese.


Agaclarin ibadet etmesi / Betende Bäume
 Redewendung: Die durch Wind schaukelnde Bäume werden “betende Bäume” genannt. Eiche gehört zu denn nicht anbetende Bäume, weil es andeutig weniger schaukelt. Akcaabat wurde vorher Platana (19. Jahrhundert : Pulathane, Polathane) genannt, weil die Menschen einen Baum anbeteten, die Platane heißt (Platane, auf lat.: Platanus Orientalis). “Die Menschen legen sehr Wert auf die Bäume. Bei manchen Mordfälle ging es um ein Baum”, so der Lermioglu. Eine wahre Geschichte von Ihm, vom 19. Jahrhundert : In den 1940´er Jahren hatte ein Jäger einen Baum (“Kragen” genannt) abgesägt, weil die Menschen zu diesen Baum anbeteten und das ihm nicht gefiel. Darauf gingen die Menschen zur Revier und zeigten ihn an. Ihm wurde vorgeworfen, einen Heiligen getötet zu haben. Der Fall “Heiliger Baum” kann nur mit paganistischen glauben in Kaukasien geäußert werden. Die Polizisten dachten, der Jäger tötete einer, der Heiliger hieß. Sie befreiten der Jäger, nach dem der Fall aufgeklärt wurde. Ähnliche Fälle wurden in Hemsin auch beobachtet.
“Wir sägen vor dem und während der Heiligen Fest keinen Baum ab, weil sie anbeten”
Ahi Evren Dede / Ahi Evren
 Nach einem Sage kam er zu den Zeiten Kaiserreich Trabzon in dieser Stadt. Er verbreitete als Heiliger den Religion Islam. Sein Grab am Boztepe (Trabzon) wird von den Einwohnern als Heilig betrachtet und besucht.
 Seine richtige Name hiess Scheich  Nasreddin Ebul’ Hakayık, Mahmud Bin Ahmed El Hoyi. Geboren in Hoya (Iran), im Jahr 1169 n.Chr. Er verbrachte dir
ersten Jahren seines Lebens in Aserbaidschan. Danach wanderte er nach Kayseri aus (1206 n.Chr.) Er gründete dort das Ahi Verein (Händler und Bauernverein). Er wurde am 1 April 1261 von den Mongolischen Besatzungstruppen in Kirsehir getötet. Am Boztepe begrabene Person kann aber auch eine andere islamische Heiliger oder ein beliebter Person im Ort (z.B. Klan Führer, eine Byzantische Metropolit der zu Islam gewechselt hat usw.) sein.
Nach Sakir Sevkets Aussagen behauptete der Hodscha Scheich Hakki Efendi aus Akcaabat (1863), dass er vom Gott beauftragt wurde und ließ eine Häuschen am Grab von Ahi Evren Dede bauen. Nach seinem Tod im Jahr 1890 wurde er neben Ahi Evren Dede begraben. Später ließ die Regierung dort eine Moschee und einen Grabmal bauen.
 1.Name: Grausame; ahriyan 33 n.Chr.; ahriyan “schlecht, unakzeptabel, hässlich, schmutzig” (Das Verhalten der …….. war ahriyani/grausam);
“ahriyani/schlecht bekleidet” BY 250 (Trabzon) 2. Name: Spitzname für die in Tonya und Besikdüzü wohnende Menschen unter die Cepnis von Salpazari;
ahrayn (sal-pazari); ahiryan “Kein Cepni” AKC 161; ahrayan (Salpazari Akciris); axriyan “Spitzname der Aleviten unter einheimische Menschen”
 Der Spitzname für bulgarisch sprechende moslemische Volk (Pomaken) auf der Balkan Halbinsel (Menage,1969). Der Spitzname wurde wahrscheinlich von der Turkmenen für die nicht türkischen Völker benutzt. Auf der West Thrakien (Nord-Ost Griechenland) befindet sich ein Ortschaft, der Ahriyan heisst.
 Ahriyan in Osmanische Sprache “genial, wertvolle Textilien” OSM 18 < Persisch (Pehlevi) Eine der von Ahura Mazda geschöpfte Zwillingsseelen (Angra Mainyu) entschied bewusst für Grausamkeit und schöpfte damit der Tod. Das Hauptthema in der antiken zoroastranische Teologie ist der unendliche Krieg zwischen Angra Mainyu und Ahura Mazda. Angra Mainyu wurde zu den zeiten von Sasanen, im Mittelzeithalte-Persisch ahriman genannt.
Angra hat im 6. Jahrhundert v.Chr. geschriebene Avesta die Bedeutung “Der Feind, Die Sünde, der Schlechte). Mainyu (mainyêush, mainyô, mainyush, mainyû) hat die  Bedeutung ” Die Seele, Der Geistigkeit”
 Name: Der tradionelle Seefest. Alaturbi wird von Samsun bis Rize/Pazar Mayis Yedisi / 7. Mai, in Sürmene/Mahno Litropi genannt. In Akcaabat und Besikdüzü wird dieser Seefest zum späteren Zeitpunkt (29. Juni [AKC 162], 6. Juli [HG]) mit große Interesse von Cepnis gefeiert. ” Die Menschen glauben, dass die gesundheitliche Beschwerden sich heilen lassen, wenn sie an diesem ins Meer gehen oder mit Meereswasser baden.
anata kolefisi / anata kolefi
 Name: Aus 7 verschiedenen Haushalten werden Salz, Mehl, Öl besorgt…Aus 7 verschiedenen Wasserquellen werden Wasser besorgt… Aus 7 verschiedenen frahtis besorgten Hölzer werden gebrannt und das ganze Zutaten auf dieser Feuer gebacken. Daraus entsteht einen
salzigen Teigware : anata kolefi. Die Mädchen, die dieser Teigware schmecken, sehen an diesem Abend ihre Zukünftiger in ihren Träume (Trabzon, Rize, Hopa); anata koloti (eine alte Frau erzählt in regionaler Dialekt, was anata kolefi ist) “Das haben wir nicht / Es gab in der Stadt / anata kolefi ist Byzantisch/ Im Winter auf der Bergen wurde es gebacken und im Dorf verteilt / Meine verstorbene Mutter ist aus Gönesera /Sie nahm uns mit und wir verzehrten anata kolefi dort / Wir stellten anata kolefi sogar unter unserem Kopfkissen/ Man sah seine Zukünftiger / anata kolefi wurde meistens in Köprübasi und Of gebacken” (Sürmene Macuka) IK 22 Bk. kolot
 Geschichte Mythologischer Hafenstadt. Ancomah liegt am Trabzon/Of, Baltaci Deresi/Bach Baltaci, ca. 50km entfernt vom Meer (Schwarzes Meer). Ancomah wurde zum ersten Mal von Hasan Umur ins Frage gestellt. Nach eine Sage war Ancomah eine beliebter und schöner Hafenstadt, bevor die Bosporus entstand. Danach zog sich das Meer zurück und Ancomah verwandelte sich zu einer verwüsteten Stadt.
 Ein Freund von Hasan Umur (aus Nachbarstadt Ancomah, Divran) erzählte zu ihm über verlassenen, legendären Hafenstadt Ancomah : ” Wir haben von den älteren Leuten gehört, dort befand sich ein Stadt. Das Milchbedarf von Ancomah wurde von den südlichen Almen, über spezial verlegten Rohren besorgt” UH3 109
An diesem Ort befindet sich heute einen 30m breiten See. Die Anwohner glauben, dass unter dieser See einen Schatz versteckt ist.
“Nach dem sich das Meereswasser zurück zog, wurde zum König klar, dass er Ancomah verlassen muss. Zum Verstecken seiner Wertsachen ließ er in der Nähe von Bach Baltaci einen Loch ausgraben. Er versteckte seinen Sachen dort und gieß Bienenwachs über seinen Schatz. Danach wurde einen geheimen Wasserkanal von Bach Baltaci zu diesen Schatz hergestellt und somit entstand die kleine See.” UH3 109
 Hasan Umur hat über die Sage von Ancomah 2 Märchen gesammelt. Abschied der Anwohner, erzählt von Gedikoglu :
 ” Der König von Ancomah rief seinen Verwandten und teilte seine Entscheidung mit : “Wir können nicht mehr hier bleiben. Wir müssen flüchten” Mit der Hoffnung, das Meereswasser wieder die Stadt Ancomah erreicht, begrabten sie ihre Schätzen in der Stadtmitte. Mit Hilfe Bienenwachs wurden die Schatzkisten geschlossen. Danach wurde einen geheimen Wasserkanal von Bach Baltaci hergestellt. Aus diesem tiefen Loch wurde  einen dunklen See gemacht. Danach fluchteten die Menschen, unter Führung eines Ochsen, namens Dercan. Der König sagte, “Wo Dercan hält, ist unser neuer Heimat” Nach Tage lange Reise hielt Dercan in der Nähe von Erzincan. Somit wurde die heutige Stadt Tercan gegründet. HG1 121
 Ilyas Karagöz behauptet, dass es eine Zusammenhang mit zwischen Ancomah und Antihamos (Der Held von Troja) besteht. Er meint, dass Hamilton auch von Ancon geschrieben hat (eine Hafen am Ende des Yesilirmak). In Griechenland gibt es eine Gebiet, wo Antimahia heißt. Der Name Ancomah soll mit in Griechenland gebracht und weitergelebt sein, so der Ilyas Karagöz.
[Lat (DMS) 36° 48′ 39N Long (DMS) 27° 5′ 59E Altitude (meters) 154])
 Es wurde im Ägäisches Meer, in Istanköy (Insel Kos) ein Dorf festgestellt, wo der Name in verschiedenen Formen wie Andimakhia, Antimá-cheia, Andimákhia, Andemaki, Antimakhia, Antimachia geschrieben ist. Dieses Dorf lag nicht an der Küste, sondern mitten der Insel.
Antimahia verwandelte sch im Ost Trabzon Dialekt wahrscheinlich zu anċimah, ancomah, ançomah. Es ist hierzu nicht überraschend, dass in Ägäisches Meer eine Ortschaft mit ähnlichem Name gibt. Nach griechischen Tradion, wurden die Kolonien mit dem Name genannt, wo die Besatzer stammen. Daher ist es nicht auszuschliessen, dass die ehemalige Anwohner von Ancomah mit der Menschen von Ägäischen Inseln zu tun
hatten. Wahrscheinlich gab es keine solche Ortschaften  in Of und Umgebung. Die Geschichte der außergewöhnliche und verlassene Ortschaft stammt aus
Ägäischem Gebiet. Genauso wie karakonciloz Geschichten.  Es kann sich lohnen, den Verhältnis zwischen Atlantis und Istanköy zu forschen.
<Im Antiken Griechisch hat anti-mahos (αντίμαχος), anti mahi (αντιμάχιο) die Bedeutung “Treffpunkt während der Krieg”
(Homer, Iliad 4.123, 132, 138, II. 12.188
 Name: Grillfest… Wird meistens im Winter organisiert. Die Kosten der Arifana wird von Teilnehmern getragen, Die arme Menschen übertrafen keine Kosten.
 Pl. Der ehemalige Name von Tüfekciler (Trabzon, Dernekpazari). Arşala UH1 18 (hicri1330 – nach islamische Kalender)
 Das im Ost Schwarzes Meer eine Dorf “Arsela” heißt kann reiner Zufall oder auch als Spuren von Thrak/Pelasg gesehen werden. Arsela wird in für Thrak
Gott Sabasios geschriebenen Texten als eine Ortschaft genannt. In der Nova Zagora vorhandenen Inschriften heißt es Arselenos.
 Duridanov behauptet, dass die Flüsse im alten Preußen (Arsio ), in Lettland (Arsen und Arsia), in  Deutschland (Arsina) aus Indische und Europäische
Sprachengruppe (indisch: ar-şati) stammen und  ors-, ers “(fürs Wasser) fließen, Feuchtigkeit” bedeuten.Im thrakischen Sprache entwickelte es sich zu
“ars-“ und im Dacia (Norden und Westen von Rumänien) vorhandenen Ortschaften Ar-sa, Arsaza, Arsena und Arsila stammen auch vom gleichen Wurzelname, so der Duridanov (1976)
 “Arhi” auf griechisch (αρχή)  bedeutet “der Anfang, der Beginn” und im Schwarzes Meer Dialekt wird es “arşi” ausgesprochen. Das heißt, es konnte auch sein, dass „Arşela“ der allererste Ortschaft in der Region war.
Dıe Reben (Weıntraubenzweig) brechen
 Redewendung: Wenn die Braut nah dem Hochzeit zu seinen Wohnung ankommt, wird von sie erwartet, dass sie die Reben dreimal bricht und begrabt. Wenn die Reben wächst, glaubt man, dass die Braut Glück in die Familie bringt (Trabzon / Çarşıbaşı)
Sich unterm Himbeerstrauch laufen
 Redewendung: Man ließ die Frauen die keine Kinder kriegen, die Kinder die nicht laufen konnten oder sich in die Hose pinkelten, die Rinde, die noch keine Baby auf die Welt brachten unter dieser Himbeerstrauch („avat“ genannt) laufen, um dieser Probleme zu lösen (Trabzon West). „Man glaubt, dass die Himbeerstrauch  (avat) vom Paradies und gesegnet ist“ AKÇ 169 (Akçaabat)
Sich zum Mond zeigen
 Redewendung: Im alten Zeiten wurden die chronisch erkrankten und hoffnungslosen Menschen auf einen aus Holz hergestellten Schaufel zum Mond gezeigt. „Wenn es so weitergeht, stelle ich dich auf einen Schaufel und zeige zum Mond“ G 25 (Ikizdere)
 Man stellte in Trabzon / Çarşıbaşı die Krankaussehende Kinder und Babys auf einen Schaufel und zeigte zum Mond. Dabei sagte man “Mond!
Mond! Nimm ihn/sie oder heile sie/ihn”  Nach diesen glaube tut der Mond der Kranke entweder sich heilen oder sterben lassen. Sich zum Mond glauben
ist unter kaukasischen Abhazen, Svanen und Megrellen sehr verbreitetet ABS 18.
Sich Schnurr abschneiden
 Redewendung: Wenn die Kinder genug alt sind unf trotzdem nicht auf Beine stehen oder laufen können, so glaubt man, dass die zwischen die Füssen eine unsichtbare Knoten haben. Um das Kind vom Knote zu befreien, wird zwischen die Füssen eine Schnurr (meistens aus Kotton) angebunden und dieser wird von einem ältester Kind einer Familie oder vom  Freitagsgebet als erster rausgehende Person abgeschnitten. (Giresun, Trabzon, Rize), TS 29
Anbinden, Knoten (Hexen)
 Verb: 1. Hexen, damit die Braut und der Bräutigam nicht beischlafen oder damit der Bräutigam an Impotenz leidet (Trabzon, Rize).
 Es gibt unterschiedliche Gründe dafür. Einer der dieser Heirat nicht ausstehen und gehext hat oder dass der Bräutigam vor dem Hochzeit irgendwo Nagel
eingeschlagen, sich irgendwas angeknotet oder Türe abgeschlossen hat RK 59, 100, “ Um dle Braut vor dieser Hexmethoden zu schützen wird Umweg gemacht” MS 50, TS 41, AKÇ 171
 2. Gefährliche und wilde Tiere (wie z.B. Wölfe, Schweine, Bäre) werden gehext. Der vom Hodschas geschriebenen Texte werden auf dem Bergen wo die Viehs rumlaufen oder im Garten begraben.
3. In den Almen, um die Menge und Qualität der Gras zu steigern, werden vor dem fräsen vom Flüsse durch Hilfe kleiner Kanal Gießwasser besorgt. Dieser Tat nennt man “Wasser anbinden”
bahuri, k3apa
 Name: Man glaubt, auf dem Haut Flecken entstehen, wenn man zwischen 15 Juli und 15. August (Bach Regionalen Kalender) in das Meer oder in die Garten geht Um vor dieser Flecken zu schützen wird in die Garten oder on das Meer Münzen (aus Kupfer) geworfen (Rize, Artvin) IA 9, ME 33
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